Day 1 :
Doctor in United Lincolnshire Hospitals, UK
Time : 9am to 9:30am
Dr Brian McCann is a doctor in training working in Lincolnshire, who is interested in pursuing a career in infectious diseases.
We present an unusual case of a patient presenting with blurry vision, and rapid visual loss over two days as their main symptom. Examination demonstrated a maculopapular rash, which the patient had previously dismissed. Opthalmology examination showed significantly reduced visual acuity in left eye 1.06 logMAR, and features consistent with uveitis. A broad differential diagnosis was considered. Investigations showed Treponema pallidum IgM positive,VDRL/ RPR positive, titre 1:32. HIV negative. Lumbar puncture was performed with CSF PCR treponema pallidum positive VDRL 1:80. Treated with IV benzathine penicillin 2.4g six times a day, for fourteen days, in addition to high dose steroids. Rapid improvement in visual acuity and end of treatment, and resolution of rash. Partner also successfully treated.
Syphilis is a disease caused by the spirochete treponema pallidum, which is transmitted sexually, and from mother to child. This organism has the ability to affect any body system, which explains why it presents a diagnostic headache for clinicians, as it can present itself in a multitude of ways. The incidence of syphilis cases is at its highest since WW2. Syphilis contributes to approximately 2% of uveitis cases, and forms an important part of a differential diagnosis. There are infrequent case reports in the literature presenting this way. Investigation and interpretation of lab results can be difficult, and these must always be interpreted in context of clinical picture. This case highlights the importance of taking a sexual history as part of a routine systemic enquiry, as this can direct us towards possible diagnoses, and guide investigation. The rising incidence highlights a need for clinicians to be vigilant of this infection, as it is highly difficult to diagnose. But importantly, it is also highly curable.
Department of Statistics and Mathematical Sciences, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria.
Time : 9:30am to 10:00am
Abimdabe S.F. Belongs to Ladoke Akintola University of Technology · Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics. And Master of Science (Kwara State University).
In this paper, sensitivity analysis was performed on a mathematical model of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) purposely to determine the parameters that has a pronounced effect on the basic reproduction number in the dynamical spread of the lenti virus. It was established that there exists total disease extinction whenever the basic reproduction is less than unity and disease persists and spread out if otherwise . The relative sensitivity analysis of the parameters related to the basic reproduction number was computed and it was revealed that effective contact with HIV infected individuals and progression rate from HIV to full blown AIDS are the most sensitive parameters in the basic reproduction number. Thus, the result obtained suggests that medical practitioners and policy health makers should give critical attention to parameters that has a pronounced effect on the basic reproduction number.
Keywords: HIV, Sensitivity Analysis, Basic Reproduction number
Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lenti virus which has been proven to be the etiological agent accountable for the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Since the inception of the epidemic, it has been and continues to be a major public health challenge, having claimed more than 35 million lives so far. In 2017, approximately 36.9 million people were living with HIV with 1.8 million people becoming infected and 940,000 people died from HIV related causes globally. In the same year 2017, 1 million people died of AIDS related illnesses and 21.7 million people had access to treatment. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) severely weakens the body immune system by attacking the T lymphocytes cells which are typically white blood cells that is believed to clear off invading microbes. In a healthy normal individual’s bloodstream peripheral, the T cells level is in between 800 and , which when this number falls below in HIV infected patients, such patients will then be classified as having Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV infects some other cell and weak the largest part of the T-cells and this causes destruction and decline in the T-cells and hence, reducing the confrontation of the susceptible system.
Human Immunodeficiency virus is found in saliva, tear and urine of an infected individual but the levels of the virus on these fluids are very minute in number. Myriads of researches had been carried out in the field of epidemiology in order to study the dynamical spread of Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV). The transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which is strongly associated with defenseless sex; it was made known that the present understanding of this epidemic will reach a higher prevalence threshold level when there are extensive sexual contacts between the sex workers and the general population.
Work as a lecturer at Wachemo University, Hossana, Ethiopia.
Keynote: Modeling Time to Death of HIV Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in case of Hossana Queen Elleni Mohammad Memorial Hospital, South Ethiopia
Time : 10:00am to 10:30am
Getachew Tekle, Working as a lecturer at Wachemo University, Hossana, Ethiopia. Teach Statistics and Bio-statistics courses. Like researching. Have been working on Generalized linear models, Longitudinal data analysis, Survival data analysis, and design of experiments. Rich in Statistical Software skills. Now PhD in Statistics student at Yazd University, Iran.
The main aim of this study was modeling the factors that affect survival time of HIV infected patients by using Cox ph and parametric survival regression models. The analytical methodologies were used the Kaplan-Meier and Log Rank Test to estimate Descriptive analysis, Cox’s regression model was employed to identify the covariates that have a statistical significant effect on the survival time of HIV infected patients and exponential, weibull, log logistic and lognormal survival regression models were applied to compare efficiency of the models. The overall mean estimated survival time of patients was 51.5 months. The Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Model result revealed that baseline weight, ART adherence, baseline CD4 count, WHO clinical stage, level of education, substance use and TB co-infection of patients are the major factors that affect significantly survival time of HIV infected patients. Among the parametric regression models, based on model Comparison methods, the Weibull regression model is better
fit. The Weibull regression model results revealed that baseline weight<50 kg, low CD4 count at baseline, no education, WHO stages III and IV, poor ART adherence, co-infection with TB and
substance abuse are the categories that reduce the survival probability of HIV infected patients.
Background of the study:
A pattern of highly unusual infection in otherwise healthy young adults emerged in the early 1980s in the United States of America. This pattern or clusters of diseases that appeared in those whose immune system being attacked came to be called Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Between the 1983 and 1994 a new virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has been identified as a cause of AIDS (UNAIDS, 2005). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). People are said to be HIV positive when the HIV antibody is detected in their blood. HIV attacks and destroys certain types of white blood cells that are essential to body's immune system, the biological ability of the human body to fight infections.HIV infects primarily vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (to be specific, CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells that are necessary to activate B-lymphocytes and induce the production of antibodies. The infected person becomes susceptible to a wide range of opportunistic infections, such as tuberculosis and Pneumocistic Carinii Pnemonia, and rare cancer such as Caposis Sarcoma (WHO, 2007). From the total number of people who have died due to HIV/AIDS in 2006 alone was 88,997 and in 2007 it was estimated that 71,902 people would die (FMOH, 2007). In 2010, AIDS related death is expected to decline to 28,073. which might be as a result of ART. Currently an estimated